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This image of Joseph Papineau was painted 26 years after he presented the citizen's petition endorsing the abolition of slavery in Lower Canada.

This is a map of Eastern Canada made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612 based on information he was told about the Ottawa River.

This wooden habitation was built in 1605 near present-day Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, after the settlement at Sainte-Croix Island, New Brunswick, across the Bay of Fundy proved unsuitable. There was no fresh water source on the island. And after…

William Hall was born in Horton Bluff, Nova Scotia, the son of former American slaves. He began his naval career on an American trading vessel in 1844 when he was only seventeen years old. In 1852 he joined the British Royal Navy and fought in the…

Marie Joseph Angelique was a Black slave woman living in Montreal in the early eighteenth century. She was accused of setting fire to her mistress’s house and, in doing so, burning down half of what is now Old Montreal. She was tried in a court…

Nova Scotian Rose Fortune is a good example of someone who led an interesting life. Born in Virginia in 1774, she was brought by her slave parents as Black United Empire Loyalists to Nova Scotia, where they settled as free people in the Annapolis…

Black Loyalists came from the United States to Canada after the American Revolution. This pass was a standard form to which the name of the specific Black loyalist was affixed, along with the date. The requirement to enter "He" or "She" at the…

This extract from the title page of the Book of Negroes is taken from the British version of this document. Two of these hand-written records were made simultaneously - one by the British and one by the Americans - listing the names and descriptions…

Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe played a significant role in the passing of a law in Upper Canada in 1793 that was intended to gradually eliminate slavery. While existing slaves would remain slaves, the law disallowed any new slaves from…

This map shows the new territory created in the United States in 1787 as a "free" territory. Any slave entering the state after 1787 was deemed free, although slaves already residing there remained the property of their owners. Since this territory…